The National Ensign/American Flag
For the National Ensign/Color/American Flag, military and other color guards will always hold its staff vertical (Marine Corps, Navy, & Coast Guard and US Certified Ceremonial Guardsmen) or slightly incline it forward (Army only), depending on the service drill and ceremonies manual for regulation or ceremonial drill. The minimum color guard compliment requirement is the American flag and two guards armed with rifles, shotguns, or ceremonial fire axes. Sword, sabers, and fixed bayonets are not authorized for American color guards.
Fringe on the American flag is mandatory for all Army and Air Force color guards. Fringe is not authorized for Marine Corps, Navy, & Coast Guard color guards. No fringe is recommended for US Certified Ceremonial Guardsmen.
Service Departmental Colors
When it comes to the service departmental flag (the flag with the coat of arms or seal of the service), it is only dipped in salute for the Star Spangled Banner, foreign national anthem of a friendly nation, to the Secretary and Chief of Staff/Commandant of that service, to individuals of equal or higher rank, and at military funerals. At no other time is the service departmental color dipped. On the commands of Present Arms or Eyes Right, if the above requirements are not met, the departmental flag remains vertical (Army-slightly inclined), no exceptions. Departmental colors are always carried with the American flag and never carried on their own or in the second rank of a massed color guard. Click here for information on Joint Service Order.
All service departmental colors are required to have fringe. This also extends to JROTC, Sea Cadets, Civil Air Patrol, and Young Marine organizational flags.
Only a member of the military (Active Duty, National Guard, or Reserve), a member of a service Auxiliary, State Guard, or a US military veteran in a military or veteran service uniform should carry the departmental color.
Cadet and Other Youth Programs
The service departmental flag protocol presents an interesting dilemma for service cadet programs authorized to carry the flag since cadet color guards compete and part of the competition sequence is to execute Present Arms and Eyes Right to include a flag dip. But the head judge for the drill deck does not warrant a salute.
JROTC and other cadet programs are authorized to carry the service departmental flag and to facilitate the competition’s commands and not break protocol, many teams have carried their state flag as the second flag. However, this also breaks protocol since the color guard is required, by service regulation, to carry the departmental flag. My suggestion is to carry the service JROTC, Young Marine, Sea Cadet, or Civil Air Patrol organizational flag, respectively, any time, but especially for competition. These flags and the flags of other youth programs (Pathfinders, Scouts, etc.) would also fall into this category and be dipped any time Present Arms or Eyes Right is given unless specific guidance is provided for that flag.
A side note:
- Army and Air Force color guards may carry one foreign national, state, and territory flag in the formation along with a unit flag. (TC 3-21.5 & AR 840-10 – AFMAN 36-2203, AFI 34-1201, & AFPAM 34-1202)
- State and territory flags are carried immediately to the left of the American flag, and to the right of the departmental flag.
- Massed formations may have only unit flags beginning in the second rank.
- Marine Corps, Navy, and Coast Guard color guards are not authorized to carry a state or territory flag at all, the second flag must be the departmental/unit flag. (MCO 5060.2 & MCO 10520.3)
- Only the National Ensign and Departmental flag are authorized in these service color guard formations.
- These service color guards may carry a foreign national flag in a separate three-man (one flag, two rifle guards) formation or carry it in the color guard next to the national (but this is not usual).
- Massed formations (Regiment) may have only unit flags beginning in the second rank.
- All military color guards will not carry any non-military flag, no exceptions. See POW/MIA flag information below. (AR 840-10, MCO 1052.3, & AFI 34-1201)
- Non-military flags are not authorized in any military color guard, no matter who carries the flag.
- Joint Service color guards may only carry the American flag and two or more departmental service flags. No other flags are authorized in partial or full joint service color guards. (Service flag and protocol manuals)
First Responder Department Flags
It’s quite possible that this has not necessarily been considered before, but the police or fire department or sheriff’s office flag should only be dipped for the Star Spangled Banner, foreign national anthem, police/fire chief or sheriff, those of equal or higher rank, and at the funeral for a first responder. Click here for First Responder Joint Service Order information.
- First Responder Joint Service color guards should carry the American, state, and department flags.
- First responders should not carry military departmental colors.
- Check with your state, territory, tribal nation to see if the local regulations require flags to be dipped to the state, territory, tribal anthem, if there is one.
State, Territory, & Tribal Flags
Each state and territory creates it’s own laws and standards for their flag. Interestingly, when the Founding Fathers of the USA decided to call each Colony a State, other countries were a bit angered. A state = a country, which is a community under one government (yes, our state governments were supposed to have much more control).
With that knowledge, and short of reaching out to all 50 states and 16 territories to find their specific requirements, we can begin to understand that state and territory flags probably should not be dipped just any old time.
The State, Territory, and Tribal flag should be dipped for the Star Spangled Banner, foreign national anthem, and for the funeral of a member of the state, territory, or tribal government, and anyone ranked higher and a member of the US military. The following are in order of presadence:
- There are 50 United States (listed below). I really hope you knew that.
- There is one district: District of Columbia.
- There are five major territories: Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, U.S. Virgin Islands, and Northern Mariana Islands. A U.S. territory is a partially self-governing piece of land under the authority of the U.S. government. U.S. territories are not states, but have representation in Congress.
- There are nine minor territories: Baker Island, Jarvis Island, Howland Island, Navassa Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Palmyra Atoll, and Wake Island.
When carrying all state (and territory) flags are carried as a separate formation, referred to as “S&Ts”, these flags have their own commander who is outside the formation. Guards are not necessary. The commands should be separate from the color guard, but executed at the same time. The preparatory command for the color guard is, “Colors!”, for the S&Ts, its “Flags!” as in “Flags, Carry, Flags!” It may sound strange, but it helps to create the separation.
Use these guidelines, but I highly encourage you to research your state, territory, and/or tribal requirements. Begin with the Attorney General and National Guard Adjutant General.
The POW/MIA Flag
The POW/MIA flag is not authorized to be carried in ANY military color guard formation nor paraded on it’s own. It is only carried as a personal color for the funeral of a former prisoner of war or military member who was missing in action.
The Flagstaff and Finial
The only authorized flagstaff for all military color guards is the guidon staff topped with the flat, silver Army Spearhead (spade) finial, pictured (Navy and Coast Guard units may use the battle-ax with local funding only).
- Upper Ferrule
- Spade Finial
- Middle Screw Joint
- Lower Ferrule
Any civilian organization carrying flags may use any staff they choose with the flying eagle as the finial. The spread eagle is exclusively for the President of the United States. Note: NTP 13B, Flags Pennants, and Customs, states the spread eagle is for civilian officials and flag officers whose official salute is 19 or more guns.
State flags in order:
- Delaware, December 7, 1787
- Pennsylvania, December 12, 1787
- New Jersey, December 18, 1787
- Georgia, January 2, 1788
- Connecticut, January 9, 1788
- Massachusetts, February 6, 1788
- Maryland, April 28, 1788
- South Carolina, May 23, 1788
- New Hampshire, June 21, 1788
- Virginia, June 25, 1788
- New York, July 26, 1788
- North Carolina, November 21, 1789
- Rhode Island, May 29, 1790
- Vermont, March 4, 1791
- Kentucky, June 1, 1792
- Tennessee, June 1, 1796
- Ohio, March 1, 1803
- Louisiana, April 30, 1812
- Indiana, December 11, 1816
- Mississippi, December 10, 1817
- Illinois, December 3, 1818
- Alabama, December 14, 1819
- Maine, March 15, 1820
- Missouri, August 10, 1821
- Arkansas, June 15, 1836
- Michigan, January 26, 1837
- Florida, March 3, 1845
- Texas, December 29, 1845
- Iowa, December 28, 1846
- Wisconsin, May 29, 1848
- California, September 9, 1850
- Minnesota, May 11, 1858
- Oregon, February 14, 1859
- Kansas, January 29, 1861
- West Virginia, June 20, 1863
- Nevada, October 31, 1864
- Nebraska, March 1, 1867
- Colorado, August 1, 1876
- North Dakota, Nov. 2, 1889
- South Dakota, November 2, 1889
- Montana, November 8, 1889
- Washington, November 11, 1889
- Idaho, July 3, 1890
- Wyoming, July 10, 1890
- Utah, January 4, 1896
- Oklahoma, November 16, 1907
- New Mexico, January 6, 1912
- Arizona, February 14, 1912
- Alaska, January 3, 1959
- Hawaii, August 21, 1959