The second in the series, let’s review the USAF and USSF standards:
- Air Force: AFMAN 36-2203, AFI 34-1201, & AFPAM 34-1202.
There are always two guards.
Decades ago, each of the services used their military police to form color guards. The guards were armed with handguns. This is where the tradition comes from that only the guards wear web or pistol belts (used in CAP). However, belts are not mandatory, as shown in the AFMAN pictures.
Swords, sabers and fixed bayonets are not authorized for a color guard. How do we know this? Because the AFMAN shows exactly what is authorized.
The Air Force uses the guidon manual for the flagstaff with minor adjustments (e.g. not pushing the flagstaff forward but pushing the guidon staff forward at Parade Rest) to account for the flag. The team is addressed as “Color Guard” as in, Color Guard, HALT!
The Air Force barely uses the regulation drill technique information out of AFMAN 36-2203 for a color guard except for AFJROTC. Base Honor Guards have taken on the majority of tasks and use ceremonial drill techniques. Currently, the ones who use the techniques the most are the Training Instructors at Lackland AFB (Joint Base San Antonio) and some Air National Guard and Reserve units without Base Honor Guard support.
The 2013 and 2018 editions of AFMAN 36-2203 have switched the color bearers to holding the staff with the left hand. The previous version had wrong text stating the left hand should be on the staff, but the pictures showed the right hand (the proper technique). The current version updated the pictures to actually show the wrong technique with the wrong text description. While I’ve been saying that the AFMAN has been wrong for years, an Air Force agency specifically told the office of primary responsibility for the AFMAN that the left-hand pictures and text were wrong, but the OPR published anyway. The USAF has never used the left hand on the staff. None of the services have done so. For the AF to change, it would not be a simple text and picture update, because it affects not only AF regulation drill, but the AF Honor Guard, with an impact on the other services and that’s just not going to happen. The left-hand hold technique is wrong, even though.
Where the AFMAN seemingly lacks in information, it is found in the other service manuals. Airmen and AFJROTC cadets are to read AFMAN 36-2203 and follow the techniques pictured (hand positions, fingers, etc.). Rifle guards then use MCO 5060.2 for transitions (because they are at the outside shoulder at Carry) and color bearers use TC 3-21.5 for transitions all while still using USAF guidon staff techniques. AFI 34-1201 and AFPAM 34-1202 have equipment information and other standards that apply. You can download these from the Resources page.
Of significant importance is the position for the commander of an Air Force color guard. This goes for everyone who wears a blue uniform and commands the team. You move with the color guard when you call the team to Attention. You do not go to Attention first. This applies to color guard, flag raising/lowering detail, and parade staff.
Equipment. Traditionally, belts were only worn by the guards. Belts are not currently required. Colors harnesses are mandatory for the color bearers at all times. Why? because the pictures show them and the text mentions them.
2.34.3. Flag Cases. Flag cases are made of any suitable material, preferably waterproof, with sufficient length and width to cover flags when not displayed. Use flag cases to cover flags when being stored or carried on other than ceremonial occasions.
2.34.4. Flag Slings. Flag slings (sometimes referred to as harnesses) must be used at all times to carry flags during outdoor ceremonies. Flag slings are black, patent leather with silver buckles for dress occasions. For practice or non-dress occasions, black leather (non-patent) or dark blue slings are authorized.
2.34.5. Bases. A weighted, silver colored base is the preferred base for use by the Air Force. Upon replacing or purchasing new bases through attrition, the silver colored base should be purchased.AFI 34-1201
Minimum Mandatory flags and their positions. Notice that the American flag is NEVER carried in the middle of two or more flags and always to the right.
2.11. Order of Precedence of Flags.AFI 34-1201
2.11.1. The United States Flag.
2.11.2. Foreign national flags. Normally, these are displayed in alphabetical order using the English alphabet. When in NATO countries, NATO member country flags are displayed in French alphabetical order.
2.11.3. Flag of the President of the United States of America.
2.11.4. State and territorial flags. State flags should be displayed in order of admittance of the state to the Union. Territorial flags, when displayed, are displayed after the state flags in the order they were recognized by the United States.
2.11.5. City Flags
2.11.6. Departmental Flags
188.8.131.52. The senior flagbearer carries the US flag, commands the color guard, and gives the necessary commands for movements and rendering honors. The junior flagbearer carries the Air Force flag. The Air Force flag is placed on the marching left of the US flag in whatever direction the flags face. When only the US flag is carried, the color guard is composed of one flagbearer and two guards. The Air Force flag is never carried without the US flag.
2.2 Rules for Commands
2.2.2. When the commander is a member of a staff or detail and is required to perform a movement at the same time as the formation, the commander will maintain the same position as the formation while giving commands and will respond to his/her command.AFMAN 36-2203
Spacing and Staffs.
7.32.2. With the flagbearers in the center, the color guard is formed and marched in one rank at close interval.
7.33.2. The staff is inclined slightly to the front.AFMAN 36-2203
Saluting. Below states the only times that the USAF flag may be dipped. You don’t just dip the flag every time Present Arms is called. These restrictions mandate that the USAF flag will not be carried in competitions because the team must render a salute to the judge. In that case, the state flag should be carried in its place, but the state flag cannot replace the USAF, AFJROTC, or CAP flag at any other time. This includes the Pledge of Allegiance. Departmental and organizational flags are not dipped for the Pledge.
7.35.1. The Air Force departmental flag is an organizational flag and is dipped while the National Anthem, “To the Color,” musical honors for CSAF or higher or a foreign national anthem is played. The departmental flag is also dipped when rendering honors to the SecAF, the CSAF, their direct representative or any government official of equivalent or higher grade, including foreign dignitaries. Additionally, the departmental flag and other subordinate flags will be dipped during military funeral honors.AFMAN 36-2203
Carrying Nonmilitary Flags. The USAF does not specifically address this issue, but the Army does. The following means that your team cannot carry flags like the POW/MIA (addressed in AFI 34-1201), Military Order of the Purple Heart, or any other non-government or military flag. State and territory flags are authorized.
Chapter 1, 1-7
f. Carrying of nonmilitary organizational flags. U.S. military personnel in uniform or in civilian clothing acting in an official capacity will not carry flags of veterans’ groups or other nonmilitary organizations; however, commanders may authorize military personnel to carry State and territorial or national flags during military ceremonies.AR 840-10
Joint Service Standards.
184.108.40.206. In Joint Service Color Teams, the Army carries the United States Flag and commands the color team as the senior service. Rifle guards nearest the United States Flag are Army and the Marines on the far end of the Joint Service Color Team.AFI 34-1201
Foreign National, State, and Territory Flags.
Table A2.1. Table of Honors
Note 9. For events honoring foreign dignitaries, the flags of the foreign country of the guest(s) being honored should be included in the color guard when available.AFI 34-1201
2.22. United States Air Force Departmental Flag. There are two authorized sizes of the United States Air Force Departmental Flag. The ceremonial (4 feet 4 inches by 5 feet 6 inches) is authorized for optional use with streamers. The smaller Air Force flag (3 feet by 4 feet) will not be used with streamers. Uses and descriptions for each size are detailed below. These provisions also apply to Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard organizations.AFI 34-1201
2.22.1. The ceremonial size United States Air Force Departmental Flag, with or without streamers, is 4 feet 4 inches by 5 feet 6 inches, and is trimmed on three edges with a rayon fringe of yellow 2 inches wide. The ceremonial size of the United States Air Force Departmental Flag also serves as the Headquarters United States Air Force flag.
2.22.5. The 3 feet by 4 feet version of the Air Force Departmental Flag is identical in design to the ceremonial size, but is displayed without streamers. This smaller version may be used on all occasions the larger ceremonial flag may be used; however, it is not to be used with streamers. Its size matches identically with the size of the General Officers’ flags and the Air Force Senior Executive Service flag and should be used in ceremonies or events in which all flags need to be the same size.
2.22.6. When displayed with departmental flags of other United States military services, precedence is as follows: Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard.
2.22.7. When displayed or carried with flags of other Air Force organizations, foreign national flags, or State flags, the order of precedence is as follows: The United States Flag, foreign national flags, state flags, Air Force flag, and flags of other Air Force organizations.
2.8.4. Securely fasten to the flagstaff to prevent sliding down the staff during the event.AFPAM 34-1202
220.127.116.11. Ceremonial and Organizational. Use flagstaffs at all times when displaying or carrying ceremonial or organizational flags. Only flagstaffs displaying ceremonial size flags (4 feet 4 inches by 5 feet 6 inches) are 9 [previous version stated 10 feet, all other services use 9.5 feet -DM] feet in length. When displaying other sized flags, the flagstaffs can be either 7 or 8 feet in length plus the staff ornament. When displaying 3 feet by 4 feet flags, a flagstaff of 7 feet in length is recommended and the flagstaff of 8 feet in length is an option; the flagstaff of 9 feet in length should not be used. Flagstaffs can be one piece or a breakdown style and should be ash in color.AFI 34-1201
2.8.1. Use the same size and type of flagstaff.AFPAM 34-1202
2.34.2. Staff Ornament, Flagstaff Head or Finial. The decorative device at the top of a flagstaff is the finial. It is precedence the eagle finial be used only with the Presidential flag. However, if the United States Flag is displayed with the Presidential flag, then both may have the eagle finial. The spearhead, acorn, and ball finials that were previously used are no longer Air Force standard. Upon replacing or purchasing new finials through attrition, the eagle, spearhead, acorn, or ball should not be purchased. All finials in a display or ceremony should be the same. This does not restrict the display of a state flag from a staff bearing a state device when national and other state flags are displayed from adjacent flagstaffs; however, the Air Force does not provide such devices. The following finials are authorized for flags used by Air Force organizations:AFI 34-1201
18.104.22.168. Spade, silver in color (primary finial used by the Air Force).