The AFMAN Right Face in Marching is Wrong

DrillMaster Commentary, Instructional 2 Comments

Wow, that’s a bit presumptuous of me to say that the AFMAN is wrong when it comes to the Right Face in Marching, isn’t it? You would think, but there’s a very good reason why I am writing this. While initially reading through AFMAN 36-2201, you may skim across the information and accept it at face value, however, if you look deeper into the Face in Marching, you will see there is a problem.

It’s a strange movement, but has a very good purpose. Essentially, it is a flank from a halt. For those of you who execute a Colors Reverse (an Army move that reverses a color guard) with flanks, you need to read this: The Colors Reverse and Countermarch How To.

The Army Face in Marching

Facings in Marching from the Halt are important parts of the following movements: alignments, column movements, inspecting Soldiers in ranks, and changing from Normal Interval to Double Interval or Double Interval to Normal Interval.
a. For instructional purposes only, the command Face to the Right (Left) in Marching, MARCH may be used to teach the individual to execute the movement properly. On the preparatory command Face to the Right (Left) in Marching, shift the weight of the body without noticeable movement onto the right foot. On the command of execution MARCH, pivot to the right (left) on the ball of the right foot (90 degrees) and step off in the indicated direction with the left foot. Execute the pivot and step in one count, and continue marching in the new direction. (See paragraph 4-5c and Chapter 3, paragraph 3-1a.)

TC 3-21.5 20 January 2012

From the text above, we can easily understand that the face-in-march (my term, abbreviated F-I-M) is only executed with the pivot on the right foot at a full 90 degrees to the right or left with the left foot kicked out in either direction. This is what the image at the top of the article shows.

The text then goes on to describe the 45-degree half-right or half-left F-I-M, which is required for a column movement from a halt with two or more squads/elements. More on that in a moment.

The Marine Corps Face as in Marching

This applies to Marines, Sailors, and Coasties.

The MCO does not define a F-I-M, specifically. It refers to it as a Face as in Marching for Close and Extend and also for mass parade movement. It also mentions an Oblique in Marching. However, the F-I-M explanation is presented in Section 2, paragraph 12.

To March to the Flank. The purpose of this movement is to march the
entire unit to the right (left) for a short distance. It may be executed
when halted or while marching at either quick time or double time. The
command is “By the Right (Left) Flank, MARCH.” When marching the command of execution is given as the foot in the direction of the movement strikes the deck.
a. From a Halt
(1) For right flank, turn 90 degrees to the right by pivoting on the ball of the right foot and (using a cross over step) stepping off with the left foot 30 inches in the new direction of march.
(2) For left flank, turn 90 degrees to the left by pivoting on the ball of the right foot and stepping off 30 inches with the left foot in the new direction of march.

MCO 5060.20 15 May 2019

For either direction, once again, the pivot is on the right foot. Why? Because we step off with the left foot for every move we perform except for Right Step where we move laterally and do not face the direction of march.

The AF Face in Marching

Here is where we get into a strange explanation that does not make sense when you put it into practice.

3.18. Face in Marching. The command is Right (Left) Flank, MARCH. On the command MARCH, the Airman executes a 90-degree pivot on the ball of the right (left) foot and, at the same time, steps off with the left (right) foot in the new direction with coordinated arm swing. The pivot and step are executed in one count, and proper dress, cover, interval, and distance are maintained.

AFMAN 36-2203 19 June 2018

The image below shows what the AFMAN describes for a Right Flank from the halt. Why would this be different from the other services? There isn’t a good answer to this question.

Now, I’m aware that there are service differences. For instance, all of the services used to execute an Oblique but the Army and Air Force stopped using it decades ago while the Marine Corps, Navy, and Coast Guard still use it. Another instance is Column of Files (Twos) from the Right/Left. That’s the Marine Corps and Air Force term for the move, but the MCO left this move out in the 2019 edition. The Army calls it File from the Right/Left.

The Duck Walk

Before we continue, let me throw this in the mix: the USAF “Duck Walk” is used for in-ranks inspections. If the above is to be followed, pivoting on the left foot and stepping to the right with the right foot, then why is the Duck Walk’s first pivot and following steps explained to look like this?

Why isn’t the first pivot on the left foot? Because it’s not supposed to be, that’s why. We don’t pivot on the left. Let’s continue.

The Problem Explained

If all you have to do is call “Column Right, MARCH!” while halted, and have the flight step off, we have a big problem. All of the element leaders, let’s say we have four elements, will step off on the right foot, but the rest of the flight, let’s say we have four ranks (a total of 16 members) will step off on their left.

Shown below are the foot steps of the first and second ranks. All of the element leaders (first rank) are executing what the AFMAN says is correct, but that creates a right foot lead off when the rest of the flight steps of, correctly, with the left foot. Now we have the first rank out of step with the rest of the flight.

To get around this difficulty, the AFMAN has the following:

4.11.4. On the command MARCH, element leaders begin the movement by executing a face in marching for a column left. For a column right, element leaders take one 24-inch step forward, then execute the movement.

AFMAN 36-2203 19 June 2019

Working Jointly

We, in the US military are supposed to be able to fit together in war fighting and we display that ability when march. While there are some commands that can throw off the services (“By the Right Flank” called on multiple feet vs. “Right Flank” called on two right steps), that can be remedied but technique is another matter.

It’s an assumption on my part and I hope you can at least see my point here. Performing a move completely differently from the other services isn’t in our best interests and this can be easily cleared up.

It doesn’t make sense to have to long-standing drill and ceremonies manuals and then have the AF come along and say, “Nah, we’ll do it this way.” I’m looking at you, Space Force. Don’t make me write an article about you. Now, let’s look at this from an historic perspective.

A Brief History

Why the US military cannot use one standard is a bit confusing. We started with one standard for the Revolutionary War under Baron von Steuben’s Blue Book and during the Civil War era, different generals began writing slightly different standards for rifle manipulation, mainly. The differences continued from there.

The first Air Force Manual for drill and ceremonies was AFM 50-14, dated June 1956. I have both the initial manual and the revision. Both have the following paragraph on page 46. Remember, the USAF became a service out of the Army in September of 1947 and relied heavily on both Army Field Manual 22-5 (now TC 3-21.5) and the NAVMC 2691 (now the MCO 5060.20) manual for drill and ceremonies.

To Face in Marching. The facings in marching are an important part of movements as column right, close, take interval, and extend. For facings to the right or left in marching, the command, By the Right (Left) Flank, MARCH, may be used.

TO face to the right or left in marching from a halt, turn to the right or left flank on the ball of the right foot at the command of execution. At the same time step off with the left foot in the new direction. [emphasis mine]AFM 50-14 and AFM 50-14 (Revision) June 1956

Performance Report Bullet Needed in ’92?

The same text is used in the 1963 version of AFM 50-14. But the 1992 version, AFR 50-14, has the change! I cannot find any edition of the manual after 1963 version to before 1992 version, so I am not positive that the change was made exactly in ’92. In any case, it was made. Why?

The USAF history is relatively short, however we are losing our history. Just because you might have an idea doesn’t mean it’s appropriate to change a standard. Marching may not seem like a big deal from where you sit but let me assure you that it is a very big deal. Please read, The Benefits of Military Drill.

Wrap Up

Standards matter. The F-I-M is not simply a flank from a halt. It is a precise movement that requires coordination with the rest of the formation when different elements are executing different movements simultaneously.

Drill and ceremonies is not just something an individual can flippantly make up as they go. The impact is far too great. There must be sound reasoning behind a proposed change (I’m looking at you, Civil Air Patrol, Sea Cadets, and Young Marines.)

Now that the problem has been identified, let’s clean it up and reword the paragraph back to the original language. While we are at it, a definition could be added to the MCO to not only name the Face as in Marching (“as” not required), but also explain the Oblique in Marching (which the Army identified as the Half-right (left) Face in Marching.

And, could we just call it a Face-in-March too?

Flag Fringe and Finial Theory

DrillMaster Color Guard/Color Team, DrillCenter News, Honor Guard 14 Comments

Before we get into the Fringe Theory, let’s all just take a deep breath and not get reactionary. Completely dismissing or wrapping yourself around the axle into this theory without due consideration of the facts is not going to do anyone any good.

I know. Conspiracy theories! Wacko! Tin-foil hat-wearing fool! Yada-yada-yada. If you are not open minded or already know everything, please move along.

I’m not writing this to offer complete answers, just bring out information. I don’t know if we can have definite answers to the myriad of possible questions.

UPDATE: This Web page here has nothing but false information and yet it is being shared as if it is packed full of truth. It talks about the “military flag” that has fringe. There is no such flag and Pres. Eisenhower’s Executive Order does not have that language in it nor does the US Code regarding the flag. It’s all nonsense.

The Theories

  1. Fringe on the flag defaces it and suspends the Constitution.
  2. The gold cord and tassels adds to the defacement.
  3. State flags are also defaced by adding gold colored fringe (I don’t know if that applies to any other color).
  4. The finial has something to do with signaling a court is not following Constitutional law but admiralty or court martial law.
  5. Flag size other than the 1:1.9 ratio suspends the Constitution.

The Flag Code

The Flag Code is part of public law, it sets the standards. Since it is public law (all caps: 4 U.S. Code CHAPTER 1—THE FLAG), I trust website and no one else, really. There is too much assumption everywhere else.

Let me be clear: the average guy or gal can read a paragraph of the Flag Code and still be perplexed at the meaning of the words just read. But, let’s do the best we can here.

In addition to the Flag Code are at least two Presidential Executive Orders that are included in the website I linked to above. For example, Executive Order 10834, signed by President Eisenhower on July 4, 1960, adds the star for the Hawai’ian Islands, gives the dimensions the flag in great detail, and revoked Executive Order 10798.


Hoist (width) of flag 1.0
Fly (length) of flag 1.9
Hoist (width) of Union 0.5385 ( 7/13)
Fly (length) of Union 0.76
Diameter of star 0.0616
Width of stripe 0.0769 ( 1/13)

However, it also states that minor changes can be made to the national flag or union jack. FYI, the Jack of the United States/Union Jack is a maritime flag displayed at the bow on the jack staff of a vessel only when moored or anchored.

(a) The Secretary of Defense in respect of procurement for the Department of Defense (including military colors) and the Administrator of General Services in respect of procurement for executive agencies other than the Department of Defense may, for cause which the Secretary or the Administrator, as the case may be, deems sufficient, make necessary minor adjustments in one or more of the dimensions or proportionate dimensions prescribed by this order, or authorize proportions or sizes other than those prescribed by section 3 or section 21 of this order.

EO 10834, Sec. 24 (emphasis mine

Flag Sizes

There are specific sizes stipulated in the Flag Code but the EO mentioned above give the authority for the DoD to make adjustments. Why that would be necessary, I don’t know, but it’s there.

Authorized flag sizes
The flag with gold fringe and cord and tassels

Military Flag and Color Guard Flagstaff Sizes

The US Army, Air Force and Space Force display and carry 3′ x 4′ flags on eight foot staffs and 4’4″ x 5’6″ flags on 9’6″ staffs. The army can also attach the smaller flag to the taller staff. The Air Force authorizes 7′ staffs but only for posting colors indoors and at no other time.

The Marine Corps, Navy, and Coast Guard display and carry 4’4″ x 5’6″ flags on 9’6″ staffs only.

Fringe and the Cord and Tassels

Merely an affectation?

The theory is that the gold fringe defaces the flag of the United States of America suspends the Constitution. I’m not so quick to make that conclusion, but I do understand how this thinking came about.

A Brief History of Fringe

According to DeVaughn Simper, a respected member in the vexillology community and a vexillologist for Colonial Flag of Sandy Utah, provided me with an interesting aspect of the original use of fringe, as far as the American flag is concerned.

Fringe was attached to the flag because it created static electricity and attracted dirt keeping the flag itself clean longer.

Perfectly reasonable.

An even More Brief History of the Cord and Tassels

The cord and tassels were used to tie the flag after it was furled (wrapped around the staff) and stored. When the flag was unfurled for display or to be carried, the place to store the cord was to tie it around the top of the staff just below the finial.

For the military, the gold cord and tassels is not authorized in any display nor for a color guard. However, the red, white, and blue twisted cord and tassels is authorized specifically for the Marine Corps, Navy, and Coast Guard (see MCO 10520.3, AR 840-10 also mentions the RW&B cord).

Again, perfectly reasonable.

The difference in flags is the ONLY reason I am sharing this image

That was Then, This is Now

The cord and tassels is not necessary. Keeping it as a traditional/historic reference, I can definitely understand. Most likely the gold colored cord is there because the color matches the fringe. The red, white, and blue cord and tassels is required on all national colors for the Marine Corps, Navy and Coast Guard (MCO 5060.20). I prefer this tri-colored cord and tassels, referred to as a rope and tassels by the Marine Corps.

§8. Respect for flag
(g) The flag should never have placed upon it, nor on any part of it, nor attached to it any mark, insignia, letter, word, figure, design, picture, or drawing of any nature.

Flag Code

Fringe could be described as a figure or possibly a design. Don’t attach anything to the flag. There is no argument that is acceptable for fringe that I can see.

Nowhere in the Flag Code is fringe authorized to be attached to it anymore (this is the key here). It’s not necessary since we do not carry it into battle anymore, which would require creating something to keep it clean.

For information on star size, read here.

AR 840-10 and MCO 5060.2

Army Regulation 840-10, Flags, Guidons, Streamers, Tabards, and Automobile and Aircraft Plates, provides guidance for the US Army regarding every kind of flag the service uses. In it is information about fringe.

1 – 6. Materials
Flags designed primarily for indoor and parade display [DM- these flags are called Indoor/Outdoor flags] will normally be made of banner rayon or heavyweight nylon with rayon fringe. Those designed primarily for outdoor display will be made of nylon-wool or heavyweight nylon without fringe [DM- these flags are called Outside flags].

AR 840-10 (emphasis mine)

(a) 12-inch hoist by 18-inch fly, of approved material, trimmed on three sides with fringe 1 1/2 inches wide. This flag is to be displayed with the individual automobile flag of the President and Vice President of the United States.

AR 840-10 (emphasis mine)

Fringe and Flag Sizes

b. National flags listed below are for indoor display and for use in ceremonies and parades. For these purposes, the flag of the United States will be of rayon banner cloth or heavyweight nylon, trimmed on three sides with golden yellow fringe, 2 1/2 inches wide. It will be the same size or larger than other flags displayed or carried at the same time.
(1) 4-foot 4-inch hoist by 5-foot 6-inch fly. This size flag will be displayed with the U.S. Army flag, organizational flag of ACOMs, positional colors (table 3 – 1), the Corps of Cadets’ color, the 1st Battalion, 3d Infantry color, the 4-foot 4-inch by 5-foot 6-inch chapel flag and the individual flag of a general of the Army.
(2) 3-foot hoist by 4-foot fly. This size flag will be displayed with the Army Field flag, distinguishing flags, organizational colors, and institutional flags of the same size. It will also be displayed within the offices listed in c below when no other positional or organizational flags are authorized.

AR 840-10 (emphasis and notes mine)

Now, why would the Army just ignore the Flag Code when the Marine Corps specifically forbids fringe on the national flag?

MCO 5060.20, Marine Corps Drill and Ceremonies

p. The use of gold fringe on the U.S. Flag is expressly forbidden
for Marine Corps organizations.

MCO 5060.20 (emphasis mine)

Gold-colored fringe is required on all service departmental, organizational, and positional colors for all branches of the US military.

The Finial

Also called an ornament, It’s the device at the top of a flagpole (outside) or a flagstaff (indoor display or carried by a color guard). There are many finials to choose from. Here is the guidance. This section has many photos in it, if you are on a mobile device.

Below, where NTP 13B, Flags, Pennants, Honors, Ceremonies, and Customs, is referenced, the information applies only to the US Navy and Coast Guard. All of the Navy finials are interchangeable with small screws.

Here, you can see where each finial screws into the truck. I’m holding the upper ferrule.

Spread Eagle

Note- This is different from a Landing Eagle and a Flying Eagle. Many look like a plucked chicken anyway. I don’t know if the direction the eagle is looking toward matters.

(NTP 13B) It is for civilian officials and flag officers whose official gun salute is 19 or more guns. This includes such individuals as the President and Vice President, Secretaries of State, Defense, Army, Navy, Air Force; Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, State Governors, and Service Chiefs. Tables of gun salutes of military officers and civil officials are contained in Chapter 10, U.S. Navy Regulations.”

AR 840-10 state the spread eagle is only for presidential staffs. You will see the Presidential Color Guard most often at the inauguration parade. This team carries the National, Presidential, and Vice-Presidential Colors on 10′ staffs. The President and Vice-president’s colors are positional colors and receive fringe. Since the Army is the senior service, a Soldier carried the National Color and it has fringe.

Presidential Color Guard


Also from NTP 13B and for the Navy and Coast Guard only. It is “for flag officers whose official gun salute is less than 19 guns, and for civil officials whose gun salute is 11 or more but less than 19 guns. Included in this category are such individuals as the Under and Assistant Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force; Naval or Military Governors; and flag officers of the Armed Forces other than those of 5-star rank or Service Chiefs.”

See the photo below of MCPO (Ret) Mark Hacala, DrillMaster003, the Ceremonial Specialist for the US Navy Ceremonial Guard at Joint Base Anacostia-Bolling. The halberd is in his left hand (picture’s right).


This is for Army (AR 840-10) outdoor wall mounted flags for advertising or recruiting and NTP 13B states, “For officers of the grade or equivalent grade of Captain in the Navy, and for such diplomatic officials as Career Ministers, Consuls, or First Secretary of an Embassy or Legation.” It’s the standard finial for outdoor flagpoles. Read more about the ball here.

The USAF actually used the ball for color guards but it has not been authorized for use in decades- if you are still using it, stop.

See the photo below of MCPO (Ret) Mark Hacala. He is holding the halberd and battle-ax finials. Imagine, if you will, the ball alone without the rest of the ornament.



(NTP 13B) For officers of the grade or equivalent grade of Commander in the Navy. This is also the required finial for the Texas flag.

Certain states have specific finials, Fleur-de-Lis (optional for LA) and Botany Cross (required for MD), and even flag fold techniques.

Flat Truck

(NTP 13B) For officers below the grade or equivalent grade of Commander in the Navy, and for civil officials for whom honors are prescribed on the occasions of an official visit, but are not the equivalent of those officials listed above. The truck is the flat part of the upper ferrule of a flagstaff. That’s where the finial screws into.

In the photo below, DrillMaster003 is holding a Halberd Finial in his left hand. Below his index and middle fingers is the flat piece where the finial screws into the upper ferrule. That flat piece of the upper ferrule is called the truck. Remove the finial and you have the Flat Truck.

MCPO (Ret) Mark Hacala

Battle-ax/Battalion Lance

This is used by the Navy and Coast Guard as their standard finial for color guard when working within that service or jointly together. When working with another service the flat, silver Army Spearhead must be used.

In the photo above of MCPO (Ret) Mark Hacala, he is holding the battle-ax in his right hand.

All of the Navy finials mentioned are local purchase only. If they are not deemed necessary for the expenditure of funds, the Army Spearhead is always used.


Army Spearhead/Spade

AR 840-10, MCO 5060.20, and AFI 34-1201, Protocol, all state that the flat, silver spearhead is the only finial authorized for color guard and flagstaffs.

Roman Spear

Spike, spire, cone, flat- there are many variations to these finials and like the Army Spearhead, they are all derived from ancient pole arms: spears.

The Theories Summed Up

  1. Fringe on the flag defaces it and suspends the Constitution.
    • There isn’t any proof that the Constitution is suspended. Fringe on the modern national or state flag is not necessary. One hundred years ago, it was, but not anymore. I suggest that fringe not be attached to American flags.
  2. The gold cord and tassels adds to the defacement.
    • I don’t appreciate the gold colored cord, I much prefer red, white, and blue. However, just like the fringe, I cannot definitively say there is any meaning behind it.
  3. State flags are also defaced by adding gold colored fringe.
    • I know of nothing at the state level that allows fringe to be attached to any state’s flag. Unless specifically authorized by each state government, it should not be attached. I suggest that fringe also not be attached to state, county, or city flags.
    • Fringe should also not be attached to any foreign national flags that your unit may be required to keep on hand. Some countries forbid fringe, others have very long fringe in different colors. The Old Guard in Washington DC carries all foreign national flags without fringe when foreign dignitaries visit.
  4. The finial has something to do with signaling a court is not following Constitutional law but admiralty or court martial (military) law.
    • This doesn’t make sense. All finials used in the US have some sort of history and there is nothing specific to a meaning except the purposes noted above that I can find.
  5. Flag size other than the 1:1.9 ratio suspends the Constitution.
    • There is nothing that I have found that supports this. Especially with the EO stating that changes can be made when deemed necessary. Apparently they were necessary for the US military with the 3′ x 4′ and 4’4″ x 5’6″ flags being authorized for display and to be carried by a color guard along with the outdoor flag sizes.

The Corporation of the United States

Let’s add another fact to this to help with the possible confusion.

On February 21, 1871 with no constitutional authority to do so, Congress created a separate form of government for the District of Columbia, a ten mile square parcel of land (see, Acts of the Forty-first Congress,” Section 34, Session III, chapters 61 and 62). From This created the United States, Inc. As a corporation there are all kinds of different rules for a business verses a country.

Notice that when you read the Flag Code, certain statements only pertain to those living in the District of Columbia not to anyone else. A “US Citizen” is one who is based in the District of Columbia and subject to those laws. It’s a deep rabbit hole, but well worth it to onvestigate.


I don’t have one, specifically. I still have questions. However, I am much more inclined to follow the guidance of the Flag Code and the Marine Corps Order and not have fringe attached to the American flag/National Color. Flag size and finial type do not have an impact on anything as far as I can tell.

If you have any documented information to add in a positive manner to to dispute the information above, I welcome it.

Refurbishing the Flagstaff Spade Finial

DrillMaster Color Guard/Color Team, Equipment Maintenance Leave a Comment

There are spade finials out there that are damaged, I’m sure. Here, you will see the steps to make a spade finial presentable again. I use the word, presentable, because I am using things I have on hand to try to keep costs low.

The chrome finish that the spade had when it was brand new is not going to be brought back to life unless you spend the money to send it to a company that can re-chrome. I use Plano Metal Specialties in Plano, IL for my bayonets. It can be expensive, however.

For everyone’s information, the spade finial is not chromed, it’s just coated in nickel. The next step would be a chrome coating.

Following are the results of a collaboration between DeVaughn Simper, vexillologist at Colonial Flag, and me.

The Process

1.Prep Your Pieces

Wrap painter’s tape around any threads. For the upper or lower ferrule, I put each on a stick and locked the stick into my workbench vice. I even used a clamp to hold the finial by the threads and put the clamp in another vice I have.

2. Wire Brush.

If you have finials that have as much corrosion as the ones pictured at the top of the page, use a wire bristle brush, it really helps to get the crud off and keep the metal smooth.

3. Sandpaper.

Use sandpaper if you want get any nicks or scratches out of the surface and to remove any remaining corrosion. You may want to use something around 1500 grit and maybe even work your way up to remove and sanding lines.

Note: You could use low grit sandpaper and work your way up to high grit and possibly come out with an amazing mirror-like finish like ceremonial guardsmen do with their cheaters. It take hours of work but might be worth it to you. Once you get the mirror shine, you would coat it with several layers of a clear gloss. For complete details on how to accomplish this, read this article: How to Shine Your Heel Taps- “Cheaters”.

4. Rinse and dry completely.

This is essential as it removes any dust particles.

5. Apply Light Coat of Paint

A big thank you to my daughter, who is a cosmetologist, for her help. I learned that this process is similar to professionally painting fingernails. The paint dried much better in the sunlight (UV).

I used what I had on hand. I do not recommend a brush, foam or bristle. They tend to leave lines. I live in FL and we have some pretty decent humidity, even in the winter months. What I learned is that we needed to wait a couple of hours at least for the paint’s moisture to completely disappear.

As a matter of fact, I started putting one coat on in the morning and then one before dinner. I repeated over the next couple of days ending with three and four coats of paint.


The paint from Culture Hustle

I used the acrylic “chrome paint” from and I am certain that if I would have applied the paint with an airbrush, the results would have been much better.

Sprayed on and brushed on

Next, I wanted to see what the gold paint from Culture Hustle (CH) would do. In the photo at the left, you can see that I painted two pieces the gold color.

The lower ferrule at the bottom I used the Gold paint from CH. It was nice, but spraying it on would have been better. For the middle screw joint, I used gold spray paint that we had. It turned out just as good if not better (more even, no lines). The photos don’t do the painting justice.

I applied three coats of paint letting it dry/cure for hours. Make sure you apply it evenly and ensure that it’s completely dry.

7. Clear Coating.

The first and second coats didn’t really seem to do much but the third and fourth really brought out a nice shine. I used Rustoleum gloss clear coat. It did a great job.

Again, I made sure that I left it for a few hours between coats.

The Results

I would put the metal pieces on a staff and use them, even with the extensive lines from the paint brush on the spade. I do prefer the spray paint and then the clear coat purely due to the even application.

This process can save you some money along with refurbishing your guidon flagstaff yourself.

Receiving and Replacing the Colors

DrillMaster DrillCenter News Leave a Comment

DrillMaster (DM)- I received an email with great color guard questions on formally receiving and replacing the colors and how that might influence the posting of the colors.

Email (Q)- Thank You and feel free to post this as a “From the Inbox” to your various media if desired. “From the Inbox”, I like that!

DM- There are two formal sequences for receiving and replacing the colors.

Q- Can you please give some insight/clarify paragraph 7.32.3 in AFI 36-2203 which states “On command of the senior flag bearer, the guards of the color guard present arms on receiving and parting with the US Flag. After parting with the US flag, the guard is brought to order arms by command of the senior remaining member, who is the right flank of the guard”. What does this mean exactly?


DM- Great question! This is a technique of receiving and subsequently replacing the colors that were historically kept in the squadron commander’s or first sergeant’s office. This was the standard that the Army developed (see TC 3-21.5 and older versions: FM 22-5) that the AF adopted upon writing the first Air Force regulation on drill and ceremonies and it remains today.

I doubt it has been used since possibly the 1970s or possibly earlier with the services going for more utilitarian options. The advent of installation honor guards and having Airmen assigned to the team required the colors and other equipment to be stored with the team. As far as I know this is more historic than useful anymore. I’ve created several diagrams to help you visualize what happens.

Keep in mind that every military installation has a parade ground (deck). The Air Force has not maintained a strong parade ground opting to have more ceremonies on the flight line or in a hangar, which makes sense.

Teams would march to the parade ground/deck or flight line or at least pile in a van after obtaining the colors.

The Retrieval Sequence

The four team members of the color guard arrive outside of the office where the colors were traditionally stored. They could form up elsewhere and march or form up right there. R = Right Rifle Guard; U = US Color Bearer; A = USAF Color Bearer; L = Left Rifle Guard

Colors Team Arrives to Take the Colors

Next, U and A march inside (column formation) and take the colors from their stands and come back out into formation. The US Color Bearer always leading. Once the team is formed, Present and Carry is given (7.32.3. On command of the senior flag bearer, the guards of the color guard present arms on receiving and parting with the US flag. 7.32.4. Having received the US flag, the senior flag bearer conducts the color guard to its proper position in the center of the color squadron.). Notice that the USAF flag is NOT dipped. It’s not dipped because the requirements for it to render a salute are not met (see AFI 34-1201 for the requirements).

Colors received and the team is back in formation

After the team has gone back to Carry (guards with the rifles on the outside shoulder only), they march to the parade ground or wherever the ceremony will take place.


I know, this brings up the question of, how is the staff held during this time? It would have to be Port/Trail Arms and even Angle Port to get through low clearance areas and doorways. Our biggest issue here is that the manuals do not cover these positions except for Trail. However, Trail doesn’t take care of every situation.

Our next question is when do the Bearers go to Carry? Immediately out of the doorway or when they get back into formation? I answer these questions in my in-person and (coming soon) online training.

The Replacing Sequence

Dismissing the Colors is the Army term for this, I chose, “Replacing”. After the ceremony is finished, the team marches back to where the colors are stored and reverse the above sequence like this:

The team arrives where the flags are stored.

The team arrives, the NCOIC gives Present for the guards only, and the color bearers march into where the flags are stored and secure them.

7.32.3. On command of the senior flag bearer, the guards of the color guard present arms on parting with the US flag. After parting with the US flag, the guard is brought to order arms by command of the senior remaining member, who is the right flank of the guard.

AFMAN 36-2203

Meaning, when the color bearers have marched into the building (out of sight), the Right Rifle Guard gives, “Order, HARMS!” and both guards wait for the bearers to return.

The color bearers march back out to the formation. The NCOIC then marches the team back to where they formed or simply dismisses the team.

What about Posting?

Q- While the colors are being posted/retrieved, should the guards be at present arms?

Answer: No. There is NO reason to do this.

Q- Directly after posting, and directly before retrieving, should the flag bearers all face and salute the US flag.

Answer- No. Everyone faces forward. No one should face the national color whether you have the entire team in front of the stands or not.

DM- I hope you are sitting down, this will take a minute or so to explain. The above sequences have NOTHING to do with posting/retrieving the colors. In the next paragraph is the Army version, which is similar, but still has NOTHING to do with posting/retrieving the colors. Emphasis mine in the quoted text.

The Color guard uses the following procedures when receiving or dismissing the Colors.
a. When receiving uncased Colors on display in the commander’s office, the Color guard is positioned in a single rank facing the Colors. The Color sergeant commands Present, ARMS and Order, ARMS. On completion of Order Arms, the Color bearers (without command) secure the Colors. The Color guard files outside (guard, National Color, organizational Color, guard) and reforms in a line formation. The Color guards execute Right Shoulder Arms and the Color bearers assume the Carry Position.
b. To dismiss the Colors, the procedures are basically the same except that the Colors are placed back in their stands before executing Present Arms.

TC 3-21.5, 20 January 2012


Here’s the issue with the USAF. Historically, color guards were just that, a team of four-plus Airmen from the Air Police Squadron who were called upon to present the colors here and there and not much else. Then, slowly but surely, the ceremonial requirements increased and installations created honor guards that were not based in the police squadron. Each of the services went through a similar situation.

The AF used the Army posting technique for decades before the USAF Honor Guard took over the Base Honor Guard program in the mid 1990s. Still, if a color guard is not part of a BHG (cadets, explorers, and Airmen), they must use the procedures in TC 3-21.5. All BHG Airmen must use the ceremonial techniques explained in the BHG manual.

Army posting and retrieving sequences have been corrupted time and again by veteran service organizations (stomping on the stands to post the colors, sound familiar? Stop it!) and individual veterans in other organizations into all kinds of strange spectacles that have NOTHING to do with the original intent- and not only the intent, these spectacles go outside of the writing in TC 3-21.5. Simply reading the TC would alleviate what amounts to ridiculousness bordering on disrespect.

It comes down to sequence corruption (because people don’t read) and ignorance that the AF was supposed to have been following the TC (FM) all this time. These are the culprits for how some rifle guards are left at the position of Present for minutes at a time while the flags are being posted/retrieved and how everyone on the team executes a half or some teeny-tiny facing movement just to render a salute while facing the flag.

For the Record

Presentation of the Colors = formally presenting the colors to an audience. As long as an American flag is displayed, this can be all that the color guard does, called a Show-n-Go, and then depart.

This should be your color guard’s most-used technique. You can find more information here: All About Posting or Presenting Colors. That article can get you started, but there is even more information you (everyone) should know.

Posting the Colors = This is a formal presentation (this MUST happen) and then the color guard or just the color bearers moving to post the flags in stands all in front of the audience.

When presenting or posting the colors and not a formally trained part of a BHG (or formally trained CAP cadet), follow the Army procedure. You can alter it to meet the needs of the environment but that doesn’t mean making up something you think would be “really cool”. That’s not what the colors is about.

Remember: not every single colors presentation or posting is covered in the TC or in the Marine Corps Order, which AF teams may also use. Both are available to download from the Resources section of this website.


Formal assemblies conducted indoors begin with the presentation of the Colors, referred to as posting the Colors, and end with the retirement of the Colors. The following instructions outline the procedures for posting and retiring the Colors, with a head table and without head table. Since indoor areas vary in size, configuration, and intended purpose, these instructions do not apply to all situations. Therefore, persons planning an indoor ceremony can modify these instructions based on their specific floor plan.

(2) When a head table is not used, the Color guard enters and moves to a predesignated position centered on and facing the audience. This may require the Color guard to move in a column and use Facing movements. The movement must be planned so that the National Color is always on the right when in line and is leading when in column.

TC 3-21.5

Emphasis mine, above.

For More

To get a better understanding of the requirements for each service color guard see the following links:

The “Why” of the Military Color Guard – Regulations

The “Why” of the Military Color Guard – US Army

The “Why” of the Military Color Guard – Marine Corps, Navy, & Coast Guard

The “Why” of the Military Color Guard – Air Force

The Mounted Color Guard

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There is a new eBook by the DrillMaster called Mounted Color Guard Protocols For Civilian Organizations. Major contributions to the book were made by DeVaughn Simper, Vexillologist, Professor Flag.

The techniques come from the military just like a color guard on foot and allowances have been made for American citizens who wish to present the colors while on horseback.

Folded Flag Salute Protocol

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The Salute Fest is what I witnessed by a team of law enforcement officers, pallbearers, standing over the casket of a comrade and folding the American flag. Before picking up the flag, they saluted (this is acceptable). Before the first triangle fold, they saluted. The team then continued to salute for the other 12 triangle folds. It was painful to watch.

Yes, we want to honor our flag and we should. This is why the Flag Code was written and the US military wrote even more guidance. First responders follow either the Army Training Circular or the Marine Corps Order if they want just regulation drill, both downloadable from the Military Manuals section of the Resources page. If they want ceremonial drill, they follow the national standards detailed in The Honor Guard Manual.

Saluting the Uncased Flag

An uncased flag is one that is mounted on a color guard flagstaff and is not cased and also a flag that is not folded into a triangle.

  1. When it is carried, uncased, by a color guard and the team marches past.
  2. When passing, approaching from any direction, a color guard (whether the staffs are at Carry or Order) and the flag is uncased.
  3. When a car with a mounted flag drives past (do not salute a stopped car unless it is occupied).
  4. When a coach (hearse) or caisson carrying a flag-draped casket passes.
  5. When passing a coach (hearse) or caisson carrying a flag-draped casket.
  6. By the oncoming and off-going Casket Watch guards (the guards do not salute each other) who salute the flag-draped casket.
  7. When the flag is raised at Reveille.
  8. When the flag is lowered at Retreat.
  9. By pallbearers just before picking up the casket for transport.*
  10. By pallbearers just before lifting the flag off the casket to fold it.*

*This salute is not rendered by every military service, it is acceptable.

When to Not Salute the Uncased Flag

  1. When passing a flag mounted on a halyard (rope) on an outside permanent flagpole.
  2. When passing a flag mounted on a color guard flagstaff on display indoors.

Saluting the Cased Flag

A color guard flag that is folded (Marine Corps, Navy, & Coast Guard) or furled (wrapped; Army, Air Force, & Space Force) around the staff is then cased and the folded flag (triangle) is also considered cased.

  1. Each time the folded flag is handed off to another.
    • Typically, the flag is folded, handed to or taken by the pallbearer who ensures the flag is presentable (not salutes here),
    • then that pallbearer hands the flag to the senior member present (salute rendered by the pallbearer),
    • and the senior member then presents the folded flag to the next of kin (salute rendered by the senior member).

When to Not Salute the Cased Flag

  1. Before receiving the the folded flag.
  2. When the folded flag is being carried to/from a ceremony.
  3. At Reveille or Retreat.

How do we Salute the Flag?

We stand at Attention and render the hand salute. We do not bend our head down to look at the folded flag, we look straight ahead. The Slow Salute (3 seconds up, 3 second pause, & 3 seconds down) is appropriate for individuals only, not groups (formations). If more than one flag is presented at the same time and all presenters will coordinate their simultaneous Slow Salute, that is appropriate. Those in formation should render the standard salute (one second up and down and only on the commands of, “Present, ARMS” and “Order, ARMS”, respectively).

The Chief Brief

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You have an upcoming Line of Duty Death funeral and will be handing the flag to the Sheriff, Police Chief, or Fire Chief who will then hand the folded flag to the next of kin (NOK). What do you say to brief the Chief? Here is something to help you:

“Chief, stand at the head of the casket. When I step over in front of you, hold your hands flat out in front of you with fingers together and I will hand you the flag with the presentation side down. I will salute the flag while your arms are still flat. When I finish my salute, cradle the flag into your chest (now, the presentation side faces out) and I will depart. If you forget to not cradle the flag before I salute, I will still salute. As I depart, you walk over to the NOK, bring your right hand up to the right side of the flag and push the long straight edge of the flag forward so that the presentation side is now up. Recite the statement of condolence, stand, render the Slow Salute, drop the salute and walk off.”

What to Expect

We can begin with the main image above. The flag is folded toward the foot. The checker takes the flag and then:

The flag goes through it’s inspection to ensure it is presentable and then sent down the “Chute” to the Lt.

The police lieutenant hands off the flag to the Chief.

The Lt salutes the flag, turns, and marches off. At this point, the Chief would move to the NOK and present the flag with the speech. Note: the Chief was not briefed in this situation as she was the recipient (mock NOK) for the mock graduation funeral. She was asked to just accept the flag without any guidance since the true NOK would not receive guidance.

Feet, Feet, Feet!

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“Oh how many feet you meet!” I read to my children every night when they were growing and Dr. Seuss’s Foot Book, was a favorite.

I got the idea for this article from this article –

Foot Pain!

Fascia: A sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue enveloping, separating, or binding together muscles, organs, and other soft structures of the body.

Plantar Fascia: The thick connective tissue which supports the arch of the foot.

Plantar Fasciitis: Short-term inflammation in a fascia. It is a disorder of the connective tissue which supports the arch of the foot. It results in pain in the heel and bottom of the foot that is usually most severe with the first steps of the day or following a period of rest. Pain is also frequently brought on by bending the foot and toes up towards the shin.

Plantar Fasciosis: Long-term inflammation in a fascia. Although, it seems that everyone just uses “fasciitis” to mean both, in general.

I spent 20 years in the US Air Force and before that I was an Army ROTC cadet at New Mexico Military Institute. Since retiring from the USAF in 2005, I still wear boots in my DrillMaster utility uniform any time I am teaching. That’s quite a few years to wear boots! To use today’s vernacular, plantar fasciitis much? Yes and I was given these hard plastic inserts by the VA clinic that I wore for several years that helped a little bit, but I still needed to get a new set each year or so. Still, the idea was still in the back of my head: why do I need these? What happened?

There are still people in the world who do not wear shoes. A tribe in the jungle somewhere doesn’t have a podiatrist assigned to it who is telling one of the older members, “Well, we just need to take an impression of each of your feet and then we will get you some hard, solid plastic inserts to give you some relief.” Insert into what? No shoes.

Theodoric of York receiving a patient

I don’t think foot doctors (barbers?) were walking around medieval England or Europe talking to people about fallen arches. As Medieval Barber, Theodoric of York once stated, “You’ll feel a lot better after a good bleeding!”

If people can survive all their lives without a “tribal podiatrist”, what happened to my feet? Shoes and boots happened.

I don’t play a doctor on TV or anywhere, this is just my experience and research. A bunch of research that I will not detail except to say that there are some very good physical therapy accounts on Instagram that will explain all kinds of details that I’m not qualified to get into. Here is the shortened journey I went through to have feet that don’t hurt.

Exercise. Your feet have muscles that are not allowed to work properly when you wear certain shoes and boots. This is not going to be fun or comfortable at first, but I was better in about nine months. After two years, my feet are just fine. Do this every day.

  • I walked forward and backward in bare feet eight steps on the outsides, insides, heels, and platforms (ball of the foot and toes) of my feet. At first, the heels might be the most painful so I wore athletic shoes or went outside and walked in the grass. Eventually, I was able to do all of my walking on our hard floors in the house without any pain whatsoever.
  • “Make fists with your toes.” Lay a towel flat on a smooth floor and, while leaving your heel on the floor, pull the towel toward you with your toes and arch.

Shoes. When not on duty, start wearing shoes that provide protection from the surface on which you are walking, but that can bend and move and allow your feet to work properly. I fell for the notion of having shoes that must have steel plates in the soles to give you the best support or the supper soft squishy soles that help you roll your foot forward. Please don’t waste your money, the support comes from your bones, tendons, muscles, and fascia in your feet, up your legs, and into your pelvis.

I don’t wear flip-flops. If you want a sandal, wear one that has a strap around the back of the heel.

You are on a relatively short journey that I pray will reduce and eventually eliminate your pain. I hope this helps you.

NJROTC Cadets and Commands

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In my years of judging military drill competitions, I have encountered a peculiar situation with just about every Navy JROTC team. The team commander (platoon, squad, or color guard) calls the commands without the first letter of each word. Here is an example:

“‘Orward, ‘ARCH!”

I thought it might be one of those situations where one JROTC team does something different and others want to do it too because different is somehow “cool”. That’s not the case at all. Apparently Headquarters NJROTC teaches this technique as part of the summer leadership school curriculum (please correct me if I am wrong!). If this is the case, we have a big problem.

The issue with this is twofold: 1) The US Navy follows Marine Corps Order 5060.20 for drill and ceremonies and the command voice is addressed in this Order. NJROTC must take the information in the MCO and apply it uniformly across the command. 2) The sound of these commands is like listening to a monotone sea lion. It’s an abrupt, bark-like sound, devoid of the proper qualities.

The following voice characteristics are completely ignored when using the monotone-no-first-letter NJROTC technique (text in bold below is my emphasis).

MCO 5060.20 Says

f. A command must be given loud enough to be heard by all members of a unit.
(1) Good posture, proper breathing, and the correct use of throat and mouth muscles help develop a commander’s voice.
(2) Projecting the voice enables one to be heard at maximum range without undue strain. To project a command, commanders must focus their voices on the most distant individuals. Good exercises for voice projection are:
(a) Yawning to get the feel of the open mouth and throat.
(b) Counting and saying the vowel sounds “oh” and “ah” in a full, firm voice.
(c) Giving commands at a uniform cadence, prolonging each syllable.
(d) When practicing, stand erect, breathe properly, keep the mouth open wide, and relax the throat.
(3) The diaphragm is the most important muscle in breathing. It is the large horizontal muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen. It automatically controls normal breathing, but must be developed to give commands properly. Deep breathing exercises are one good method of developing the diaphragm. Another is to take a deep breath, hold it, open the mouth, relax the throat muscles, and snap out a series of fast “hats” or “huts.” Expelling short puffs of air from the lungs should make these sounds. If properly done, you can feel the stomach muscles tighten as the sounds are made.
(4) The throat, mouth, and nose act as amplifiers. They give fullness to and help project the voice. In giving commands, the throat should be relaxed. The lower jaw and lips should be loose. The mouth should be open wide and the vowel sounds (a, e, i, o, u) should be prolonged. Consonants (letters other than vowels) and word endings should be curt and sharply cut off.
(5) The position of attention is the proper position for giving commands (See figure 1-6a). A leader’s bearing will be emulated. If it is military, junior personnel will be inspired to respond to commands with snap and precision.
(6) Distinct commands inspire troops. Indistinct commands confuse them. All commands can be given correctly without loss of effect or cadence. To give distinct commands, you must emphasize enunciation; make full use of the tongue, lips, and lower jaw; practice giving commands slowly, carefully, and in cadence; and then increase the rate of delivery until the proper rhythm (112 to 120 beats per minute) is reached and each syllable is distinct. Raising the hand to the mouth to aid in projecting commands is not proper.
(7) Inflection is the rise and fall in pitch, the tone changes of the voice.
(a) Preparatory commands should be delivered with a rise and inflection in the voice. (e.g., “BaaaTALion,” “PlaaaTOON,” “FoorWARD,” “TO the REAR,” etc.) In particular those preparatory commands that cause supplemental movements should be heavily accentuated on the last syllable. (e.g., The command “Present, ARMS” the preparatory command Preee(pause)ZENT” causes those armed with swords to execute the first count of the movement and the national color to go to the carry. Another example is “Officers, Center, MARCH.” On the preparatory command of “OffiCERS” those armed with swords go to the carry, on the preparatory command of “CennnTER” the officer’s step and/or face)
(b) A command of execution is given in a sharper and higher pitch than the tone of the preparatory command’s last syllable. A good
command of execution has no inflection, but it must have snap. It should be delivered with sharp emphasis, ending like the crack of a whip. If properly given, troops will react to it with snap and precision.
(c) Combined commands such as “FALL IN” are delivered without inflection. They are given in the uniform high pitch and loudness of a command of execution.

MCO 5060.20 15 MAY 2019 Enclosure (1)

Notice how command voice qualities detailed in the MCO are the complete opposite of the technique that most NJROTC cadets seem to use. The MCO was written for a purpose, just like all other military manuals. We need to use it as it was intended.

The Loss of “Specialness”

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Certain things, when they become ubiquitous, can lose their special quality. Compound daily viewing with that object being everywhere and that object or moment becomes commonplace.


The American flag is one of those items. In the eyes of some, it’s just another piece of cloth. Many in the American public understand that it is not just some colored cloth, we understand that, even though the government might be running the country into the ground, the flag still stands for freedom, truth, etc. However, when Americans do not take care of their flag and hold it in high esteem, you get what we have today.

Take that idea and put the POW/MIA flag in the mix. As of 2020, this flag is now to be flown at every federal building. It’s never carried by military color guards, it is only carried for the funeral of a former POW as a personal color.


Let’s add to this idea and include the bugle call Taps. Taps is technically not “played” it is sounded and sounded only at specific times for very specific reasons. This is from Jari Villanueva, America’s Taps Bugler:

Taps serves a dual purpose: 1) To signal that the end of the day and that it’s time to go to sleep and, 2) To render honors at a military funeral or memorial service and only on a bugle or trumpet. Taps is not sounded just because the community or the nation is suffering a certain tragedy (real or perceived).

Note: When buglers are playing at a ceremony, they must be in view of the next of kin. All ceremonial elements must be in view.

And Another Thing…

The Firing Party is next on our list. A firing party is made up of a minimum of 4 members: 3 who fire and 1 to command; and the maximum number is 8 members: 7 to fire and 1 to command. The team does not shoot, it fires the Three Volley Salute. We find information about the firing party and when it executes its mission in Army Training Circular 3-21.5 and Marine Corps Order 5060.20. Both manuals have information for the team to fire during a funeral or memorial service and that’s it. A firing party does not fire a salute because it would be really cool or special. The Three Volley Salute is meant to show respect for a fallen comrade at a funeral, memorial or remembrance ceremony only. Traditionally, the firing party fires OVER THE GRAVE and we can extrapolate that to over the cremated remains or, if the remains have not been recovered, over the general area of where the next of kin.

Gun Salute at Marine Barracks Washington

A firing party does not fire the 21-gun salute. That is accomplished only by the cannons of the Army, Marine Corps, and Navy.

But, the Manuals Don’t Say We can’t…

This is selfishness. I’ve heard the arguments for all kinds of situations: “The manual doesn’t say we ‘can’t’ use metal staffs for color guard.” “The manual doesn’t say we ‘can’t’ fire a salute at the parking lot of the deceased’s favorite restaurant while his friends have wings and drinks in his honor.”

You are correct, the manuals do not have a long list of situations where the firing party (and Taps, for that matter) is not authorized. What you WILL find are the two situations where the firing of the Three Volley Salute is authorized. Look for what is there, not for what isn’t.


I was told by a social media friend that he saw a veteran service organization color guard during a parade in his town. The team marched to a certain point, stopped, the guards stepped out of formation, and fired. This kind of action needs to stop immediately. A color guard and firing party do not merge. We have manuals for a reason.