All About the Firing Party

DrillMasterAsk DrillMaster, Honor Guard, Honor Guard Training, Instructional 6 Comments

The Nellis AFB Honor Guard Firing Party
The Nellis AFB Honor Guard Firing Party

The Firing Party
(Information taken from the book, The Honor Guard Manual (Second Edition).) All military services use the firing party for most funerals (not all qualify). Law enforcement agencies also use the firing party to render honors.

“Ah yes, the 21-Gun Salute!” I hear you say. My reply: Stop right there! Only Army and Navy (including the Marine Corps) cannons fire the 21-Gun salute. A firing party does not fire 21 guns, they have rifles and fire the Three Volley Salute. Your reply: “But, seven people fire the rifles three times and 7 x 3 = 21. So, it’s a 21-rifle salute? There is no such thing as a 21-rifle salute.

The math Doesn’t Always Work

Sometimes the math work, as shown above. But there isn’t a requirement that the firing party be only one commander with seven members firing. The minimum for firing in the Army is 5 with the maximum being 8. The minimum for the Air Force is 3 and the maximum 7. At one time, the Marine Corps used 12 to fire.

For more on terminology, click here to read Fire Team, Firing Party and Firing Squad. What’s the Difference?

Techniques Not to Use

Do Not Take Aim

Taking aim is called “shooting”, firing party members “fire”. Firing party members do not raise the rifle or shotgun to the shoulder and angle the head down to sight the weapon. Firing party members keep their head erect and look over the end of the barrel.

Do Not Step Forward

The firing party members face to the right and step out to the side similar to standing at Parade Rest. Stepping forward not only looks awkward, it is awkward. Do not step forward like this: The Indiana State Police Jasper Post Firing Party.

“Ready! Aim! PULL!”

The word, “fire” ends with a vowel and the word trails off without an abrupt end. Many years ago, the service honor guards (maybe just the Army’s Old Guard) experimented with replacing the word, “pull” for “fire” since it ends with a consonant and can better help the timing of the volleys. You pull the trigger on the “P” of “Pull”.

The Air Force Honor Guard developed a seven-count sequence each time “Readup!” is called. The P replaces the Y to give the word a definite end for timing purposes, “Aim” and “Fire” are eliminated in the sequence. The seven-count sequence is repeated twice and the last time “Readup!” is called, the sequence is down to six movements.


The family should always be able to see each ceremonial element: the firing party, bugler, pallberers, and colors. Fifty paces from the grave is a good rule of thumb and positioned so that the rifles fire over the grave. Below is the suggested setup for a typical full honors funeral. Trees and monuments might play a part in positioning the ceremonial elements.

A Full Honors Funeral

The firing party is 50-75 paces from the head of the casket in full view of the family. The Three-Volley Salute is fired over the casket and subsequently over the family. At an indoor memorial service, the firing party would be directly outside the doors of the chapel about 20 paces away (if possible) so that if the family were to look out of the open chapel doors they would be able to see some of the members firing the salute.

I remember performing a memorial service in Tucson while on the Davis-Monthan AFB Honor Guard back in the early 90s where we had the firing party across a busy street from the funeral home since there would be no graveside ceremony. They were centered on the doors and when the time came, we opened the doors which signaled the sequence of firing the three volleys. The family was able to see what was going on and so were all of the people at the tire center next door to where the team stood.

The Defense Authorization Act of 2000 mandated the rendering of military honors for all veterans with an honorable discharge. The Full and Standard Honors Funeral has a full complement of eight members – the commander and the seven members who fire. A Modified Funeral also has seven members, however, six of the members perform as pallbearers, present the flag and then move to fire. The Retiree Funeral uses four members to fire the volleys, the commander and this time, three members who fire. Veteran Funeral, does not have an official firing party provided by the military, but many times, a veteran group will take up that responsibility.

The Three Volley Salute

This practice originated in the old custom of halting the fighting to remove the dead from the battlefield. Once each army had cleared its dead, it would fire three volleys of blanks into the air to indicate that the dead had been cared for and that they were ready to go back to the fight.

Which Weapon?

USAF Firing Party Edit

There are three ceremonial-type rifles, the M1 Garand, M1903 and M14 (shown in the picture at left) that are used for ceremonial duties. Both the M1 and the M14 have a charging handle/operating rod which enables the firing party members to add a little flare to firing the sequence of three. The M1903 presents a bit of a challenge since it has a manual bolt. Using an M1903 on a firing party can be accomplished, you just need to practice firing, pulling the bolt up, rearward, pushing it forward and down and then firing again.

Police Link Firing Party

The M16 rifle does not present a ceremonial image, in my opinion. However, a unit must use what is readily available. (Read also the Army’s Donations Program for a Firing Party.).

Law enforcement agencies use anyone of the above or they use the shotgun. There are even teams that use a handgun.

I have developed techniques for each weapon that any team can incorporate. The methods I use are practical and logical and easily adopted.

The Sterling Heights Police Honor Guard provided a 21-gun salute in honor of those who have served their country during the city's Veterans Day ceremony Nov. 11. Source photo/Sean Delaney
The Sterling Heights Police Honor Guard provided a 21-gun salute in honor of those who have served their country during the city’s Veterans Day ceremony Nov. 11. Source photo/Sean Delaney
Kelly Dragus, wife of Jonathan Dragus–the last Oklahoma City police officer killed in the line of duty–fires her pistol with other members of the honor guard as fallen officers are remembered at a memorial in front of Oklahoma City Police Headquarters in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma on Friday, May 9, 2008. BY STEVE SISNEY, THE OKLAHOMAN

Updated April 5, 2022

Comments 6

  1. When the Hearse & family drive up to enter the shelter & the Honor Guard is lined up (without rifles)

    Is the command Aten-Shun Hand Salute
    Present Arms

    I am a Navy Veteran Volunteer at the Tahoma National Cemetery

    1. Post

      Mr. Smith,

      As soon as the team sees the NOK, they should all come to Attention. You can give a simple “tighten up” to go to Parade Rest from At Ease, and then call “Honor – Guard, Ah-Ten-Shun!” The space between Honor and Guard should be a slightly long pause. If no one on the team is armed, Hand Salute and Ready Two are appropriate, if everyone is from the sea services. If anyone is there from the Army, Present Arms and Order Arms is required. If anyone is from the Air Force, or Space Force, Present Arms and Order Arms is preferred for them but not required.


  2. Drill Master: We have been taught that the 3 shoot volley is to be aimed to the East for over 50 years. We have a new person that is telling us that we can shoot in any direction. Which way is correct and why were we always shooting to the east? We were under the impression that it involved the fact that the sun rises from the East!

    1. Post

      Mr. Poull,

      It never ceases to amaze me as to the folklore that is created and passed down for years and even decades. Your newbie is correct and I’ve learned something new.

      The only requirements for the firing party are to be approximately 50 paces from the NOK and you must fire over the grave. The rifle muzzle should be at an approximate 45-degree angle from horizontal. If the direction just happens to be due east or even “sou-souwest” it doesn’t matter.

      I’m so glad that you wrote in! Thank you for this opportunity to help you and your team understand the requirements of a firing party and also my thanks to you and the team for wanting to render military honors appropriately.


  3. I am in the American Legion here in Sierra Vista, AZ. I have been trying to organize, and become certified for a Service member Ceremonial Firing team. We have difficulty in getting a Firing Team for any veteran other than US Army. I recently had a Navy Veterans family that tried everything possible and failed to be able to have a Memorial Firing team present the Honors. That is disgusting. We have a National Cemetery but they refuse to let me present honors unless I am a Certified Team. So, HOW DO I BECOME A CERTIFIED TEAM? Where do we start and finish?
    Vernal J. Smith
    Retired US Army, LTC
    Many hours of memorial unit training and flag Honors training. Served as Survival Assistance Officer many times in my career.

    Please HELP!!!!!

    1. Post

      LTC Smith,

      Thank you for your question. I understand your frustration.

      There are three levels of honirs: Active Duty Death, Retiree, and Veteran. Active Duty are authorized the three ceremonial elements: colors, pallbearers, and firing party. Retirees are authorized pallbearers and firing party. Veterans are authorized two team members who fold and present the flag and sound Taps. Retirees are usually put in the Veteran category as well.

      It depends on the ability of the local installation ceremonial team’s manning whether any of the elements are manned.

      Unfortunately, the Navy’s presence in many states is just recruiters. It would be impossible for them fully man a funeral except for the Veteran category.

      As for certification, training is offered through Post and Base honor guards through the Authorized Provider Partnership Program (AP3). However, this is not that well known and many team NCOICs are completely unaware of it. You can read a little bit about it here, I also have a PDF on the program under the Honor Guard tab on the Downloads page,


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